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The M1 and M2 carbines were again issued to U. These weapons began to be replaced by the M16 in , and they were generally out of service by s, although they were used in limited numbers by U.
At least , M1 and M2 carbines were given to the South Vietnamese and were widely used throughout the Vietnam War. They were used by every branch of the U.
Armed Forces. After World War II , the M1 and M2 carbines were widely exported to U. During World War II , the British SAS used the M1 and M1A1 carbines after The weapon was taken into use simply because a decision had been taken by Allied authorities to supply.
It was handy enough to parachute with, and, in addition, could be easily stowed in an operational Jeep.
Other specialist intelligence collection units, such as 30 Assault Unit sponsored by the Naval Intelligence Division of the British Admiralty, which operated across the entire Allied area of operations, also made use of this weapon.
The carbine continued to be utilized as late as the Malayan Emergency , by the Police Field Force of the Royal Malaysian Police , along with other units of the British Army, were issued the M2 carbine for both jungle patrols and outpost defense.
Small numbers of captured M1 carbines were used by German forces in World War II, particularly after D-Day. The " a " came from the country name in German; in this case, Amerika.
It was also used by German police and border guards in Bavaria after World War II and into the s. The carbines were stamped according to the branch they were in service with; for instance, those used by the border guard were stamped " Bundesgrenzschutz ".
Some of these weapons were modified with different sights, finishes, and sometimes new barrels. A variant was produced shortly after World War II by the Japanese manufacturer Howa Machinery, under U.
These were issued to all branches of the Japan Self-Defense Forces , and large numbers of them found their way to Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.
Howa also made replacement parts for US-made M1 carbines issued to Japanese police and military. The M1 carbine was also used by the Israeli Palmach -based special forces in the Arab—Israeli War.
And, because of their compact size and semi-auto capabilities, they continued to be used by Israeli Defence Forces after the creation of Israel.
The Israeli police still use the M1 carbine as a standard long gun for non-combat elements and Mash'az volunteers. The U.
Over time, the SKS and eventually the AK would replace the carbine to become the dominant weapons used by the Viet Cong.
The Republic of Korea Armed Forces received 1,, M1 and M2 carbines from to South Korea also took an active role in the Vietnam War.
From to , South Korea sent more than , troops to South Vietnam armed primarily with M1 and M2 carbines, as well as M1 Garands. The government of the Philippines still issues M1 carbines to the infantrymen of the Philippine Army's 2nd Infantry Division [ citation needed ] assigned in Luzon Island some units are issued just M14 automatic rifles and M1 carbines and the Civilian Auxiliary Forces Geographical Unit CAFGU and Civilian Volunteer Organizations CVO spread throughout the Philippines.
Certain provincial police units of the Philippine National Police PNP still use government-issue M1 carbines as well as some operating units of the National Bureau of Investigation NBI.
In many provinces of the Philippines, M1 carbines are still highly valued as a light small arm. Elements of the New People's Army and Islamic Secessionist movement value the carbine as a lightweight weapon and preferred choice for mountain and ambush operations.
The M1 carbine has become one of the most recognized firearms in Philippine society, with the Marikina City-based company ARMSCOR Philippines still continuing to manufacture.
The M1 and M2 carbines were widely used by military, police, and security forces and their opponents during the many guerrilla and civil wars throughout Latin America until the s, when they were mostly replaced by more modern designs.
A notable user was Che Guevara who used them during the Cuban Revolution and in Bolivia where he was executed by a Bolivian soldier armed with an M2 carbine.
Cienfuegos' carbine is on display in the Museum of the Revolution Cuba. The unit data provided below refers to original U.
Ordnance contract carbines the United States provided these countries. The standard-issue versions of the carbine officially listed and supported were the M1, M1A1, M2 and M3.
Carbines originally issued with the M1A1 folding stock were made by Inland, a division of General Motors and originally came with the early "L" nonadjustable sight and barrel band without bayonet lug.
Inland production of M1A1 carbines was interspersed with Inland production of M1 carbines with the standard stock. Stocks were often swapped out as carbines were refurbished at arsenals.
An original Inland carbine with an original M1A1 stock is rare today. Initially, the M1 carbine was intended to have a selective-fire capability, but the decision was made to put the M1 into production without this feature.
Fully automatic capability was incorporated into the design of the M2 an improved, selective-fire version of the M1 , introduced in The M2 featured the late M1 improvements to the rear sight, addition of a bayonet lug, and other minor changes.
Research into a conversion kit for selective fire began May ; the first kit was developed by Inland engineers, and known as the T4.
Inland was awarded a contract for T4 carbines in September Although the conversion was seen as satisfactory, the heavier round magazine put greater strain on the magazine catch, necessitating the development of a sturdier catch.
The slide, sear, and stock design also had to be modified. On fully automatic fire, the T4 model could fire about rounds per minute, but generated a manageable recoil.
Although some carbines were marked at the factory as M2, the only significant difference between an M1 and M2 carbine is in the fire control group.
The military issued field conversion kits T17 and T18 to convert an M1 to an M2. Legally a carbine marked M2 is always a machine gun for national firearms registry purposes.
These M2 parts including the heavier M2 stock were standardized for arsenal rebuild of M1 and M1A1 carbines. A modified round bolt replaced the original flat top bolt to save machining steps in manufacture.
Many sources erroneously refer to this round bolt as an 'M2 bolt' but it was developed as a standard part for new manufacture M1 and later M2 carbines and as a replacement part, with priority given to use on M1A1 and M2 carbines.
Despite being in demand, very few M2 carbines saw use during World War II, and then mostly in the closing days against Japan.
The M2 model was the most widely used Carbine variant during the Korean War. He found that many troops complained on the lack of effective range of the gun, which allowed the enemy to get close enough to throw hand grenades.
A more detailed analysis showed however that most troops who complained actually tended to run low on ammo, because they fired their M2 on fully automatic too soon.
Troops who fired their guns on semi-automatic at distance generally complained less about the M2's effectiveness. Generally, the more seasoned troops used the latter approach.
The carbine was usually given to second line troops administrative, support, etc. Marshall noted that almost all killing shots with carbines in Korea were at ranges of 50 yards or less.
It was unsurprising therefore that the M2 was a preferred weapon for night patrols. The M2 was also used in the early stages of the Vietnam War by special forces, ARVN advisers, and air crews.
Contemporary authors have struggled to categorize the M2 carbine. On one hand, it is more powerful than a submachine gun and is considered by some to be an assault rifle , even though it fires a projectile considerably less powerful than the StG 44 's 7.
On the other hand, the M2 can also be considered a precursor of the modern personal defense weapon PDW concept, even though contemporary guns in that category, like the FN P90 , fire substantially different cartridges like the 5.
The M3 carbine was an M2 carbine fitted with a mount designed to accept an infrared sight for use at night.
It was initially used with the M1 sniperscope , and an active infrared sight, and saw action in with the Army during the invasion of Okinawa.
Before the M3 carbine and M1 sniperscope were type-classified, they were known as the T3 and T, respectively. The system continued to be developed, and by the time of the Korean War , the M3 carbine was used with the M3 sniperscope.
The M2 sniper scope extended the effective nighttime range of the M3 carbine to yards. In the later stages of the Korean War, an improved version of the M3 carbine, with a revised mount, a forward pistol grip, and a new M3 sniperscope design was used in the latter stages of Korea and briefly in Vietnam.
The M3 sniperscope had a large active infrared spotlight mounted on top of the scope body itself, allowing use in the prone position.
The Ingram SAM rifles are M1 carbine derivatives in 5. The 5. They did not catch on in competition against the Ruger Mini in both the police and civilian markets.
The Ingram SAM rifles are occasionally found on auction sites for collectors. The Chiappa is not Gas operated and instead relies on Blowback operation.
Several companies manufactured copies of the M1 carbine after World War II, which varied in quality.
Some companies used a combination of original USGI and new commercial parts, while others manufactured entire firearms from new parts, which may or may not be of the same quality as the originals.
These copies were marketed to the general public and police agencies but were not made for or used by the U. In , firearms designer Melvin M.
Johnson introduced a version of the M1 carbine called the "Spitfire" that fired a 5. While the concept had some military application when used for this role in the selective-fire M2 carbine, it was not pursued, and few Spitfire carbines were made.
More recently, the Auto-Ordnance division of Kahr Arms began production of an M1 carbine replica in based on the typical M1 carbine as issued in , without the later adjustable sight or barrel band with bayonet lug.
The original Auto-Ordnance had produced various parts for IBM carbine production during World War II, but did not manufacture complete carbines until the introduction of this replica.
The AOM and AOM models no longer produced featured birch stocks and handguards, Parkerized receivers, flip-style rear sights and barrel bands without bayonet lugs.
The current AOM and AOM models are identical except for American walnut stocks and handguards. In , Inland Manufacturing, LLC in Dayton, Ohio introduced the reproduction of the "Inland M1 Carbine".
Inland Manufacturing, LLC is a private entity that is producing reproductions of the M1 Carbine and M1A1 Paratrooper models that were built by the original Inland Division of General Motors from to The new Inland M1 carbines feature many of the same characteristics of the original Inland Carbines and are manufactured in the USA.
A round mag catch was utilized to allow high-capacity magazines. The M1A1 is modeled after a late production M1A1 Paratrooper model with a folding "low wood" walnut stock, Type two barrel band, and includes the same adjustable sights which were actually introduced in An Israeli arms company Advanced Combat Systems offers a modernized bullpup variant called the Hezi SM The company claims accuracy of 1.
After World War II, the M1 carbine became a popular plinking and ranch rifle. It is still popular with civilian shooters around the world and is prized as a historically significant collector's item.
The Carbine continues to be used in military marksmanship training and competitive target matches conducted by rifle clubs affiliated with the Civilian Marksmanship Program CMP.
The M1 carbine can be used for hunting animals such as white-tailed deer and mule deer at close range less than yards , but is definitely underpowered for larger North American game such as elk , moose , and bear.
Some U. The M1 Carbine is also prohibited for hunting in several states such as Pennsylvania  because of the semi-automatic function, and Illinois  which prohibits all non-muzzleloading rifles for big game hunting.
Five-round magazines are commercially made for use in states that limit the capacity of semi-automatic hunting rifles. Some indoor shooting ranges may permit the use of an M-1 Carbine, as its bullet is comparable to magnum handgun rounds, whereas a.
Since about , New Jersey has listed the "M-1 Carbine Type" as a banned assault firearm although many examples of the M1 Carbine technically meet the restrictions on semi-automatic rifles identified by the state's firearm laws.
Police Officers, Active Duty Military or veterans in living in New Jersey are also banned form owning or possessing an M1 Carbine.
Although not specifically banned by name, make or model, M1 Carbines may in some cases be classified as assault weapons under the NY SAFE act if the rifle has features such as bayonet lugs, pistol grips, folding stocks and flash suppressors.
Although 5 round magazines have been produced, they are not very commonly found. The M1 Carbine was also used by various law enforcement agencies and prison guards, and was prominently carried by riot police during the civil unrest of the late s and early s; until it was replaced in those roles by more modern.
The ease of use and great adaptability of the weapon led to it being used by Malcolm X and Patty Hearst. Both were featured in famous news photographs carrying a version the carbine.
One of these firearms was also the weapon used in the assassination of notorious American mobster Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel.
The ammunition used by the military with the carbine include: . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of carbine.
World War II Hukbalahap Rebellion Chinese Civil War limited First Indochina War Indonesian National Revolution  Korean War Malayan Emergency Second Taiwan Strait Crisis Algerian War Suez Crisis Cuban Revolution Vietnam War Laotian Civil War Bay of Pigs Invasion  Indonesia—Malaysia confrontation Six-Day War Cambodian Civil War The Troubles Angolan Civil War Black September  Lebanese Civil War Mexican Drug War Syrian Civil War .
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Main article:. The Bay of Pigs: Cuba Elite Osprey Publishing. Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2.
Men-at-Arms Aug 7, Retrieved Jun 20, The M1 Carbine. Derek 6 June Archived from the original on 4 March Military Small Arms of the 20th Century 7th ed.
Krause Publications. James C. Routledge, Dec 1, Washington, D. World War II Small Arms. Chartwell House. The Gun Room Press.
The American Rifleman. NRA Publications. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II. New York: Orbis Publishing Ltd.
Harrison, "Who Designed the M1 Carbine? Cartridges of the World 6th ed. Iola, WI: DBI Books Inc. Green Beret in Vietnam: — The American rifleman goes to war: The guns, troops, and training of World War II as reported in NRA's magazine First ed.
National Rifle Association of America. Ordnance Went Up Front 1st ed. Capt With British Snipers To The Reich. Lancer Militaria.
Small-statured men such as Capt. Shore and Sgt. Audie Murphy liked the carbine, as its small stock dimensions fit them particularly well.
CARBINE, CALIBER. War Department. Jane's Gun Recognition Guide. Harper Collins Publishers. RJ Militaria.
Retrieved 29 October US Marine Corps — Civilian Marksmanship Program. January Retrieved 10 February Cartridges and Firearm Identification 1st ed.
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Osprey Publishing Ltd. Officers were issued. Government War Department. Retrieved 15 June The Deadly Brotherhood: The American Combat Soldier in World War II.
New York: Random House Publishing. Armored infantryman Herb Miller, of the U. It's fast, it's easy to use in a hurry. For churches and houses and things like that, it was good".
War and Peace in the Space Age. New York: Harper and Brothers. Gavin 's love affair with his M1A1 carbine ended in Sicily, when his carbine and that of Maj.
Vandervoort jammed repeatedly. Noticing that carbine fire rarely suppressed rifle fire from German infantry, he and Vandervoort traded with wounded soldiers for their M1 rifles and ammunition; Gavin carried an M1 rifle for the rest of the war.
Seven Roads To Hell. New York: Presidio Press. Burgett , a machine-gunner in the st Airborne from Normandy to the Battle of the Bulge, witnessed several failures of the.
Spencer The Jungle Is Neutral: A Soldier's Two-Year Escape from the Japanese Army 1st ed. Lyons Press. Americal Division , was one of several who did not like the carbine.
Enemy soldiers were shot many times but kept on coming. Technical Manual, Handbook on Japanese Military Forces: Body armor.
Archived from the original on 5 October The M American Rifleman. Retrieved 10 May Winter of the Yalu. Changjin Journal. Chosin: Heroic Ordeal of the Korean War 1st ed.
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In addition to their bulky cotton-padded telegroika coats, which could freeze solid with perspiration, Chicom infantry frequently wore vests or undercoats of thick goatskin.
Give Me Tomorrow: The Korean War's Greatest Untold Story: The Epic Stand of the Marines of George Company 1st ed. Da Capo Press. The Chinese Army — World War II and Civil War.
The Korean War — March—April Army Sustainment. PB , Volume 42 Issue 2. Breakout: The Chosin Reservoir Campaign, Korea Penguin Publishing.
The failure of the. Marine Lt. James Stemple reported that he shot an enemy soldier with his M2 carbine four times in the chest and saw the padding fly out the back of the soldier's padded jacket as the bullets penetrated his body, yet the enemy soldier kept on coming.
Enter the Dragon: China's Undeclared War Against the U. The two designs were superficially similar but were internally very different in design and construction,  with no parts in common other than sights.
The EM-1 used 0. A fifth design was commissioned from the BSA company, who built prototypes of a more conventional rifle using the same 7mm round, the BSA 28P.
In common with other 20th century British designs such as the P14 and SA80 , the EM-2 was designed to achieve a high degree of accuracy due to the tradition of British Army emphasis on marksmanship.
With the creation of NATO in , there was a clear preference that NATO forces would have commonality of weapons and ammunition, so weapons designs had to meet with the approval of more than one government, and it was hoped, would be adopted by the organisation as a whole.
It was at this point that the US put forth its own designs for NATO standardisation, using the 7. Matters came to a head in in a shoot-off conducted at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds , with the US claiming the British round was underpowered, and the British claiming the US round was too powerful to be used in a rifle in full-automatic mode.
At the same trials the Belgian. A series of lengthy debates followed, which were finally settled in an unlikely fashion when Canada stated they would use the British.
It was clear this would never happen. Winston Churchill felt a NATO standard was more important than any qualities of the weapon itself and overturned the decision by the previous Labour Minister of Defence , Manny Shinwell , who had already announced an intention to move to the.
It was clear the EM-2 could not be easily adapted to the powerful 7. However, the FAL was more easily adaptable to handle the more powerful, longer round.
It grew in weight and length as a consequence. Churchill had hoped that with the British Commonwealth and other NATO countries adopting the FN FAL the US Army would do so as well, however the US adopted the T44 an updated version of the M1 Garand as the M14 , which had won US trials against a more radical experimental rifle, the T In time, the British position on intermediate cartridges was vindicated, the 7.
Due to combat experience in Vietnam in the mids, the US adopted the AR as the M Chambered for the 5.
Some years afterwards, NATO also agreed to move to a smaller round more suitable for full-automatic fire and lighter weapons, ultimately adopting the 5.
Prior to committing to the 5. Around , a pair of the original. However, the concept of an Infantry Personal Weapon which led to the design of the EM-2  was reflected in the SA80 system.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British bullpup assault rifle. For other uses, see EM2 disambiguation.
Type of Bullpup assault rifle. Bullpup firearms. A Advanced Individual Combat Weapon Armtech C30R ASh AGM-1 L22 Thorneycroft. Pecheneg Bullpup QBB SAR 21 LMG Steyr AUG HBAR.
FN P90 Tavor X95 SMG JS 9 mm QCW Steyr AUG Para Steyr AUG A3 Para XS. Bushmaster Arm Pistol Remington XP Boberg XR9S Bond Arms BullPup 9.